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历史文化


     在中国古代的历史上,不乏有饮用马奶、牛奶的记载,尤其是以游牧为生的部分民族一直有这样的生活习惯。但真正与现代奶牛饲养业和乳品加工业挂起钩来的却是在1840年鸦片战争之后。随着列强的入侵,中国沦入了半封建半殖民地社会。外来文化的入侵,尤其是传教士在中国的长期定居生活,将奶牛养殖的技术和优良奶牛品种带入了中国,奶牛养殖在较早开放的通商口岸和殖民地的势力范围内开始慢慢的发展起来。
     In Chinese history, there are some records about drinking mare’s milk and cow milk. Especially, some nomadic people have such living habits. However, the cattle farms truly connected to the dairy products treatment was after The Opium War, 1840. With the invasion of the western big powers, China fell into semi-feudal and semi-colonial society. The inbreak in culture, especially the missionary’s long-term settle down, brings the cattle breeding technologies and good dairy bread. Cattle breeding are slowly developing in treaty ports and colonial area.
         1931年(一说1932年),省立临沂第五中学的五位教师一同来到济南,他们是:徐眉生,沂水人,毕业于北京师大生物系,来省教育厅人督学;高霁轩,日照县人,毕业于北京师大体育系来省体育场任教练;菅华三,阳新县人,毕业于南京大学工程系;武芳林,沂水县人,毕业于金陵大学英文系;曹子固,昌邑县人,毕业于北京大学历史系。菅、武、曹三人来济任中学教师。
      In 1931 (some say 1932), five teachers of Linyi No.5 Middle School came to Jinan, and they were: Xu Meisheng from Yishui, graduated from Peking University and came to Shandong Provincial Education Deaprtment as an administrator; Gao jixuan from Rizhao, graduated from Beijing Normal University and came to Shandong Stadium as a coach; Jian Huasan from Yangxin, graduated from University of Nanjing; Wu Fanglin from Yishui, graduated from University of Nanjing; Cao, Zigu from Changyi, graduated from Peking University. Jian, Wu and Cao came to Jinan as middle school teachers.
     当时的中国军阀混战,民不聊生,日本军国主义已将魔爪深入中国东北,被列强称作“东亚病夫”的国民生活在水深火热之中。为了为疾弱的国民做点实事,他们满怀“实业救国”的壮志,毅然决定共同兴办畜牧场,扑下身子,为报效国家做些实事。 五个人凑了750元作开办费,租赁废弃白衣庵做场址。饲养起40头瑞士奶山羊。大家协商提出称“五大”作牧场,并推举武芳林出任经理。“五大”牧场便是佳宝乳业的前身。
     At that time, China experienced a lot of warlords and people are destitute. Japanese militarism had invaded Northeast China and people who were called the sick man of Asia were living in miserable conditions. They believed in industrial national salvation and decided to start a livestock farm. Five people raise 750 Yuan and rent Baiyi Temple to feed 40 Swiss milch goats. They consulted with each other and came up with “WUDA”as the name of farm. Wu Fanglin was elected as general manager. “WUDA”farm is the predecessor of Jiabao Dairy.
      1933年,他们在中山南峪门外购地8.5亩,修建场房,建立组织,制定章程。牧场的宗旨是:“发展畜牧事业,供给新鲜牛乳,保证婴儿需要,促进市民健康”。
     In 1933, they bought about 57,000㎡ land, built workshops, set up an organization and formulated regulations. The principle of farm is: develop the animal husbandry, supply fresh milk, guarantee infants needs, and prompt public health.
      牧场的资金,按章程规定,有五股分担。但因五人都是一般教职员,一时拿不出来,于是研究决定,大家尽力筹集。他们每月发的工资,其余全部送来牧场。另外,大家还分头去动员教育界人士,采取活期或定期储蓄形式,每存入200元,免费享受牛奶半瓶。按章程规定,1934年年底牧场的股金每股为1500元,共计7500元。
     According to regulations, the funding of farm is from those five shareholders. But, they were all teaching and administrative staff and cannot afford it. They decided to donate their salary to the farm. Besides, they were to motivate other people. If one people deposited 200 Yuan, he can have half bottle of milk for free. According to regulations, each share of the farm is 1500 Yuan and total is 7500 Yuan in the end of 1934.
     牧场成立之初产销羊奶。起初,羊奶用汽水瓶装,分为整瓶和半瓶两种规格,整瓶售价一角,半瓶售价五分。后来,汽水瓶换成从上海购入的美制玻璃瓶,大瓶容量十英两,小瓶容量四英两。当时每天能销售羊奶几十斤,一般由店员背褡子每天两次送到户家中。
     At the beginning, the farm sold goat milk. The goat milk was in soda bother and had two types: full bottle and half bottle. The price of full bottle was a dime and the half bottle was half dime. After that, the soda bottle was changed to glass bottle. The volume of big bottle was 10 ounce and the value of small one was 4 ounce. Dozens of kilos were sold out every day and salesclerk delivered the milk to customers twice per day.
      奶羊选用瑞士种。为了避免近亲繁殖,牧场对羊籍进行登记,建立卡片系谱,实行选种交配。经过选留,奶羊质量有所提高。牧场在饲养管理、品种改良、疾病防治等方面,也有一套比较合理的制度。同时,牧场还订阅一些国内外有关畜牧业的报刊,并且加入了美国哥伦比亚养羊学会。
     The goats were from Swiss. To avoid inbreeding, the farm registered each goat, set up card pedigree and used selection mating. After selection, the quality of goat was improved. There were some reasonable regulations about feeding management, bread improvement and disease prevention. At the same time, the farm subscibed some newspapers and articles about animal husbandry and joined Columbia Sheep Breeders Association of America.
      通过两年多的经营,发现奶羊属小家畜,适合于家庭饲养,不适宜办牧场。因为羊养发情是按季节气候,不能由人控制,所以羊奶的供应不能随市场供求关系的变化而变化。于是牧场毅然决定:改变经营方向,饲养奶牛,销售牛奶。1935年,牧场年将奶山羊全部转让给南京牧场,并立即着手筹办饲养奶牛事宜。       Since two years research, they found milk goat was suitable for small family breeding, not in a big farm. Because the estrus of goat depends on seasonal climate, people cannot control it. The supplement of goat milk cannot change with the market demand. The farm decided to change the way they operate: bread cattle and sale milk. In 1935, all milch goats are sold to farms in Nanjing and they started to work on cattle breeding.
      青岛是一处开放较早的繁华通商口岸,有经营奶牛业务的历史,还有贩运奶牛的日本商人。经过调查研究,牧场决定从青岛购买奶牛。于是,经理武芳林亲自去青岛,从日本人开办的牧场中,买回产奶量较高、价格较便宜的奶牛。除选留一部分外,还在济南转卖一些,因此获取了不少利润。
     Qingdao is an earlier open port, which has the history of cattle business and Japanese businessman for selling cattle. After research, the farm decided to buy cattle from Qingdao. The general manager, Wu Fanglin went to Qingdao and bought some high-productivity and low-price cattle back. Except keep some cattle in their own farm, they also sold some to other farms and made some profit.
      奶牛是牛奶业的基础。牧场修建了一座标准的牛舍,图纸是美国人设计的。牛舍为单排,南向,光线充足,通风设备完好,地下铺设管道,粪便污水排泄通畅。牛设内设有自动饮水器,每头一碗,饮水时乳牛用嘴一吮,水即自动流出,不用时嘴一抬,水自断。牛舍的食槽低于牛床,饲料和粗饲料分别喂给,每日三次:早上、下午先喂草后喂料,晚上先喂料后喂草。饲料标准和舍饲方法系沿用美国的,主要精料是麸皮、豆饼、玉米粉等,喂时再掺加食盐、骨粉。精料的喂量跟季节与牛体的强弱有关,夏天与体弱者多喂,冬天与体强者少喂。
      The cattle are the base of dairy. The farm built a standard cowshed, which is designed by Americans. The cowshed was sing row, south-face, full of light and had good draught equipment. The drainage pipeline was underground and good for soil wastewater. The cowshed had a water fountain for each cattle. When the cattle sucked it, the water came out immediately, the cattle stopped sucking, the water stopped automatically. The manger was lower than cow’s bed. The cattle were bred three times per day: fodder first in the morning and afternoon, grass first in the night. The standard of fodder and breeding technology were from America. The recipe was mainly bran, bean cake and corn flour, and also sometimes mixed with salt and bone meal. The feeding volume depended on the health of cattle.

徐眉生先生






     牧场十分重视奶牛的优选和更新。对所饲养的奶牛,日产奶40斤以上的留下,其余的卖掉。为了选优繁殖,牧场曾从青岛购进一头荷兰纯种公牛,取名“北洋号”。1935年又从日本皇家牧场运来公牛一头,取名“东洋号”。牧场的牛严禁对外交配,所产公犊大部宰杀。对高产母牛要求三年产二胎,一般的一年一胎,这样,母牛体魄健壮,既多产奶又繁殖优量后代。牧场当时每日可产奶800斤左右。为了提高饲养管理和挤奶技术,经理武芳林也亲自学习和掌握美国畜牧科学资料与乳牛饲养标准——这就是它的畜牧圣经。牧场规定,奶牛的买卖要经理批准,牛籍薄由经理掌握。
     The farm took the selection and update of cattle very seriously. They only kept the cattle gave more than 20 kilos milk per day and sold out the others. The farm bought a Holstein male calf from Qingdao and named it “BeiYang”. 1935, they bought another male calf from Japan Royal Farm and named it “DongYang”. The cattle of farm were not allowed to mating outside and the male calves were killed. For high productive cattle, the farm demanded they gave birth twice in three years. The farm produced milk 400 kilos per day. In order to improve feeding technology and milking technology, Wu Fanglin studied American animal husbandry standard, which was his “Bible”. Buying and selling of cattle must be approved by general manager, and also the cattle book in managed by him.
     牧场对卫生要很严,饲养员身穿白大褂,工作服每人两套,轮流换洗。牧场还聘用了日本井贞次朗为兽医。由于一直对牛瘟、牛疫的防御工作很重视,所以未发生过大的意外损失。
     The farm was very strict with hygiene conditions. The feeders wore white coats and each feeder had two coats, so they can change in turn. The farm hired (日文翻不了….) as veterinarian. Because of the prevention work about cattle plague, there was no big losing happened.
       牧场对消毒工作要求也很严格。奶桶奶瓶用蒸汽消毒,牛奶经药棉过滤后,倒入双层消毒锅,用自动纪录仪控制。热至145~148(华氏),保温办小时后,再经冷排冷却,自动装瓶,打盖封罩(罩上印有“五大”商标、出厂日期等)。牧场十分重视奶品质量,如有异味,绝不出售。牧场用水,系场内挖掘的地下泉水。牧场还建设了水塔,敷设了地下管道。因牧场卫生设施较好,符合当时有关乳品卫生的规定,所以在评比中曾获得华北第一。
     The farm was also very strict with the sterilization work. The milk bottle and milk pail were sterilized by steam. Milk was filtered by absorbent cotton and poured into two-layer sterilizing pan. The milk was heated to 145 -148 degrees Fahrenheit and kept for half an hour. After that, the milk was cooling, filling into bottles automatically and sealed the caps (The caps had “WUDA” trademark, production date and etc.). The farm took quality of milk very seriously, if there was bad smell, the milk was never sold. The water they use is from underground. The farm also had water tower and underground pipelines. Because of this good hygiene conditions, the farm ranked top 1 of north China in the competition.
     牧场规模虽然不大,但牛奶周转环节非常紧凑。每天挤奶三次,送奶三次。第一次在凌晨两点消毒装瓶,四点发送奶;第二次是上午八点,牛奶送出的便送出,不能送出的就存入冷藏室做成奶皮、奶油;第三次安排下午四点。送奶员兼送奶皮、奶油和其他奶制品。为了方便用户,凡订奶者皆送奶道户,送奶时间有时也根据用户要求安排,用户或特别用户,电话通知后立即送到。用户奶款,每日记账,按月结算。
     Although the farm is not big, the turnover link is very tense. Milking the cattle three times a day and deliver the milk three times a day. The first time was to sterilize the bottles at two o’clock and deliver the milk at four o’clock; the second time is at eight o’clock, if there was still some milk left, it is sent to make urum and cream; the third time is 16 o’clock, the delivery man delivered urum, cream and other daily products. The milk would be delivered to customers ‘home and the delivery time was arranged according to customers ’requirement. Sometimes, users could just phone the farm and the milk would be delivered immediately. The fees were paid monthly.
      牧场对送奶员的要求是:有一定的文化,身体健康,忠实可靠,衣着整洁,谦虚有礼,不准吸烟。而且还要求送奶员讲述有关牛奶的常识,如牛奶的用法及变质过程等,以便为用户服务。送奶员的衣帽由牧场发给,冬绵夏单,深蓝色,帽子上带有“五大牧场”字徽。
      The requirements of delivery man were: educated, healthy, loyal, clean, polite and non smoking. In order to serve customers well, the delivery man had knowledge about milk, such as use of milk or why the milk went bad. The cloth of delivery man was from the farm, whose color was dark blue and there was “WUDA Farm” logo on the hat.
       牧场经营日益发展。1935年以五大股为基础核定资金,每股为4500元,共计22500元。同时,教育界人士来牧场投资者络绎不绝,数额达50000元之多。由于资金富裕,1935年又在南京开办了一个牧场。1937年“七七”事变前,牧场奶牛存量达50余头,日产奶1200斤左右,职工30人。
      Since the development of farm, each shareholder gave 4500 Yuan to support the development of farm, which was total 22500 Yuan. At the same time, more and more people from education came to invest and the total investment was about 50,000 Yuan. Because the funding was enough, they set up another farm in Nanjing, 1935. Before 1937, there were 50 cattle and 30 employees in the farm and daily productivity was 600 kilos.
      “七七”事变后,为了保护人畜安全,牧场移至南山谷里,为了稳定职工情绪,发给护场人员每股100元的优待股份。这时,由于战乱,牧场处于内外交困地步:外人储蓄无力偿还,乳品积压,经济拮据,无法维持人畜的生活。为扭转这种困难局面,牧场在经二纬四路开设了一个乳品门市部,经理当服务员招徕业务,主要经营牛奶冲鸡蛋、烤奶油面包、烤果酱面包、热点心、煎炒鸡蛋和各种炒大米饭。
     After July 7 Incident, the farm was transferred to the south valley to guarantee the safety of employees and cattle. In order to stabilize employees’ emotion, the farm gave special treatment share, which was worth 100 Yuan, to each employee. Because of war, the farm was in trouble: the debt cannot be repaid, too many backlog of dairy products and shortage of funding. In order to change this situation, the farm opened a shop in Jing Er Wei Si road. The manager acted as waiter, the main business was egg milk, roast bread with cream or jam, hot dissert, fried eggs and fried rice.
      1943年,济南同利牧场因管理不善倒闭。“五大”牧场利用在同行业工会中的权力,接管了同利牧场。对原同利牧场设在经三路的同利食堂,予以投资扩办,并聘请律师李蔚林为经理。同时,牧场还以半价收购同行业十几家小牧场每天剩余的牛奶。这样“五大”牧场的奶牛已近200头,日销奶3000斤至5000斤。
     In 1943, Jinan Tongli Farm was closed for its poor management. “WUDA”farm used its rights to take over Tongli Farm. At the same time, the farm purchased the spare milk from others at a half price. “WUDA” farm had nearly 200 heads of cattle and daily selling milk was 1500-2500 kilos.
      抗日战争胜利后,在国民党统治时期,时局不稳,市场萧条,“五大”牧场的情况急转直下。1948年4月,武芳林、高霁轩、李蔚林等人搜罗了牧场多年储备的黄金、布匹和其他贵重物资,携眷逃往台湾。牧场由于财务被武、高等人南逃时带走,又遭受国民党驻军的破坏,人畜生活无着落,奄奄一息,职工多数逃散离场。
     After War of Resistance Against Japan, the operation of“WUDA”farm went down rapidly. April 1948, Wu Fanglin, Gao Jixuan and Li Weilin ran to Taiwan and took the gold, cloth and other value stuff. On the other hand, the farm was destroyed by KMT. The employees just left the farm.
     济南解放后,徐眉生随省府来济,并受工商局委托,设法维持牧场。于是他聘请邱维周、周寿文为牧场经理、副经理,多方借贷,使牧场得以维持。
     After the liberation of Jinan, Xu Meisheng came to Jinan with provincial government. He started to operate the farm and hired Qiu Weizhou and Zhou Shouwen as managers. He asked for loans and kept the farm.
      1950年初,牧场改为公营,徐眉生将自己的股金捐献给政府。当年10月,牧场由公营发展为私营,并召开股东会议,公推李济苍为“五大”牧场董事长,徐眉生、武连九、高效乾、胡绮君(女)为董事。
      At the beginning of 1950, the farm became state owned. Xu Meisheng gave his shares to the government. In October, the farm was changed to private owned and convened a shareholders’ meeting. Li       1955年8月9日,“五大”牧场资方力求公私合营,经政府批准,9月份牧场并入市畜牧公司。合营时职工60人,日销牛奶5000斤。
      August 9th, 1955, “WUDA”farm wanted to be a joint state-private enterprise. The government approved it and the farm became part of Jinan Farming Company. At that time, the farm had 60 employees and sold milk 2500 kilos per day.
     1956年,又有96家私人小牧场合营到畜牧公司,1957年,改名为公私合营济南畜牧公司,是年全市有奶牛747头,其中畜牧公司就有517头,地方国营济南乳牛场(即省农业厅实习牧场)和济南铁路牧厂共有奶牛230头。全市年加工销售鲜奶205万公斤,生产奶油1963公斤,奶粉3628公斤,产品销售额89.7万元。1958年,铁路牧场、地方国营济南乳牛场同时并入公私合营济南畜牧公司,同年7月21日济南畜牧公司,下辖4个牧场和1个乳品加工厂。
     In 1956, another 96 private small farms jointed in Jinan Farming Company. 1957, Jinan Farming Company had 747 heads of cattle in total, and 517 heads were from Jinan Farming Company, the other 230 heads were from Jinan cattle farm and Jinan railway cattle farm. The total selling amount of milk was 2.05 million kilos, the total selling amount of cream was 1936 kilos, the total selling amount of milk powder was 3628 kilos and the total sales income was 897 thousand Yuan. In 1958, Jinan cattle farm and Jinan railway cattle farm joined in Jinan Farming Company and the company had 4 farms and 1 processing plants.
     1958年全市有奶牛882头,年加工鲜奶200多万公斤,奶油5781公斤,奶粉15121公斤,共折合鲜奶228万公斤。这一时期牛奶生产量基本满足了市场需求。三年经济困难时期,农业歉收,饲草饲料短缺,奶牛产奶量减少,乳品生产下降。
     1963年后,随着农业生产好转,乳品工业得到恢复和发展,到1965年奶牛饲养量达到1030头,全年加工销售鲜牛奶236万公斤,产品销售额和工业总产值分别增加到128万元和147.9万元。1966年5月16日,济南畜牧公司改名为济南乳品公司。
     In 1958, there were 882 heads of cattle in Jinan. There were 2 million kilos milk, 5781 kilos cream, 15121 kilos milk powders, which were 2.28 million kilos raw milk in total. The volume of production basically meets the customer’s requirement.
     In 1963, dairy industry recovered and developed again. There were 1030 heads of cattle and 2.36 million kilos milk sold in 1965. The sales and total industrial output value were 1.29 million and 1.479 million Yuan. Jinan Farming Company changed its name to Jinan Dairy Products Company.
      1981年12月21日成立济南牧工商联合公司,与畜牧局合署办公,1983年公司正式对外办公,隶属济南市农委。
     December 21st, 1981, Jinan Animal Husbandry Company was founded and started to work in 1983.
     (五大牧场冷食部的营业执照,藏于市档案馆)
     License of cold products for “WUDA” farm
     计划经济时代的济南畜牧公司和济南牧工商公司在五十年代末至九十年代初的三十年中,企业经历了计划经济时代。逐渐形成三个牧场和两个牛奶加工厂(即济南乳品厂和牛奶食品厂)的格局。
     From 1950s to 1990s, the company had 3 farms and two processing plants step by step.
     从生产至销售整个过程都按步就班的执行上级下达的计划,饲喂水平、加工规模、产品种类等虽有一定程度的发展,但发展的速度极为缓慢,仍然停留在较为原始的手工作坊式的状态。在那个特定的时代,能喝上牛奶的人寥寥无几,是一个非常特殊的消费群体——婴幼儿、重病患者、老干部等,一般人是喝不到也喝不起牛奶的,牛奶也被人们视为高级营养品。
     The processing level of that time was developing, but very slowly. At that time, there were few people can drink milk. The milk was for some special group of people, like babies, patients or veteran cadres. Milk was considered as a senior nutrition.
     有一位老年消费者,这样回忆他当年泉城路排队为孩子购买牛奶的情景:拿着托人办的牛奶证在日出前排了很久的队后,等到他这里时,仅剩一瓶了,而且由于包装不严已撒了三分之一。当他试图在换一下时,女服务员脸色难看的高声说:“爱要不要,不要这半瓶也没有了。”于是他赶快接过来,因为家里孩子还等着它来充饥。这段回忆很典型的到处了那个年代牛奶销售的特征,可以说是“皇帝的女儿不愁嫁”,随着八十年代的改革开放,公司的发展逐渐收到了严峻考验。旧的思路和模式已严重的制约了公司进一步的发展,农民个体养牛迅速发展起来,他们开始以灵活的方式出售生鲜牛奶。至九十年代初期,企业的发展受到了重重困难。
     As gradual explore of Chinese open-up, the development of company faced big challenges. The old ways and models were becoming the limits for the further development of company. Famers started to bread cattle and they sold milk in a more flexible way.
     注:本文部分摘自李济苍先生遗作《济南“五大牧场”》(济南市志资料)和《济南市志》(1985版),由王庆华编写而成。李济苍先生是“五大”牧场的老职工,建国后任济南畜牧公司副经理,1985年病逝。